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后缀的秘密 | vivo X21所用的骁龙660 AIE到底是何物?

发布: 2018-3-29 15:52 |  作者: admin  | 来源: 新潮电子 徐林

vivo在2018年上半年的主流旗舰X21发布了差不多有一周了,在这款机器发布之前,我写了一篇展望性质的文章,从自己了解的层面,说了X21可能有的方方面面更新。现在来看,那篇文章大部分都还算说到了点子上,可以小小的自豪一下,但唯独对其采用 SoC——骁龙660 AIE把错了脉。对于这个问题,虽然此前发了一条长微博略做了说明,但还是觉得说得不够明白,干脆就扩展一下吧。

软硬兼施的智慧再进化

对于骁龙660 AIE这块看上去“陌生”又“熟悉”的SoC,在 vivo X21 发布会的当晚引发了颇多揣测。到底仅仅是改了个名字还是一个具备全新AI的新解决方案?之前我的长微博是这么说的:

“AIE后缀的加入,感觉是高通更多是为了解决合作伙伴在推广上的问题。因为现在苹果A系列处理器,海思,MTK都有物理的AI处理单元,而高通为了给终端厂商省成本,是通过HVX向量处理器,CPU,GPU这些运算单元,加上软件SDK一起实现的。虽然从运算能力和兼容性上,已经发展到第三代的骁龙神经处理引擎并不比物理单元差(卷积运算层数超过120层,之前了解到麒麟970大约是50层,P60的联发科不告诉我),兼容性也很好,毕竟从820时代就有了,但是依旧解决不了宣传认知的问题,因为消费者会说:你没有就是没有。讨不了口彩很吃亏啊。”

所以一开始,骁龙660 AIE让我有点小小的“失望”,因为从此前透露的信息来看,X21上使用的骁龙660 AIE,与此前以及最近推出的各款采用该平台的骁龙660并无二致,最大的区别可能只是命名方式。但在我进一步深入了解之后,却发现了隐藏在背后的“玄机”:在这个已经不在单纯由硬件驱动的智能手机新时代,如何利用全套的解决方案令SoC中的 CPU、GPU甚至HVX向量处理器等各种计算单元有机组合,在已经快速普及的AI人工智能应用中提升执行效率和结果,是处理器厂商和手机厂商需要共同解决的事情。这个事情就好比同样的发动机装配在不同的汽车中,可能带来完全不同的驾驶和操控体验。软硬件一体化的年代,如何利用深度优化让SoC发挥其最大化的特性以服务于消费者体验,才是重点。

骁龙660AIE就是这样的一个『软硬兼施』体验升级的存在。

在vivo X21发布的同时,vivo同步推出了一个全新的人工智能品牌形象Jovi,以强调vivo自身在人工智能技术方面的技术实力。这项AI智能体系在整合了智慧识屏、智慧引擎、AI美颜等等消费者可以明确感知的AI利益点背后,是高通全套的 AI SDK 方案与 vivo 产品化经验紧密合作的结晶:相较于之前采用骁龙660的机型,vivo X21 在AI相应应用上的体验有了明显的进步——不仅仅是更快速的响应,更有更精确的用户行为预判和指引。当然,而为了配合合作伙伴这样的品牌动作,高通也“启用”了这样的一个新的SoC定名:骁龙660AIE。此次和 vivo在 AI 上的战略合作,也是骁龙660AIE的首次华丽亮相。

既然是新应用模式和新战略合作的战略合作,怎能没有个『不一样的』的名字来让消费者更清楚的了解新方案的优势呢?高通可是吃过这种亏的:还记得早先的手机处理器核心大战,高通的老对手MTK在那个时候推出的MT6752/6753,一度被称为神U,不仅8核架构让合作伙伴在终端推广的时候得到了十足的火力支援,更是让“核心越多,性能越强”这样的概念在消费者的心中种了草——尽管当时四核的骁龙600其实并不在各方面落后于竞品。高通不得不应对市场舆论的惯性认知仓促推出的首款八核处理器骁龙615系列SoC,结果因为仓促上马各方面的表现都不尽如人意,在业界广受诟病。若不是最后依靠四核架构的骁龙820,完败MTK的10核心旗舰Helio X20,破了“多核就是强”的理论神话,之后又用骁龙625稳住阵脚,强势收割MTK最擅长的中低端市场,并辅以基带优势强攻MTK的最短板,现在手机SoC的市场的格局还真不好说。君不见现在高通整个中高端,包括旗舰系统又全部回到8核架构了么?

而转到今天的芯片AI之战呢??全球主要的智能手机SoC流派,苹果A11 BIONIC,华为麒麟970,三星Exynos 9810,甚至连MTK刚刚推出的Helio P60,全部都已经宣称搭载了独立的神经网络处理器物理单元。反观高通,从骁龙820起步的高通AI SDK方案已经走到了骁龙845的第三代,无论在性能、兼容性等诸多方面,高通的解决方案在实际的AI应用中都不落下风。但正如前所说,在这个『酒香也怕巷子深』的年代里,保守的传播方式自家合作的小伙伴在宣传上却总占不到什么优势。而这个问题,我也不只一次询问过高通这条线的负责人,包括QCT集团的掌门人阿蒙,以及AI技术的产品负责人,得到的回答都还是:“目前我们依旧相信AI SDK方案是很优秀的,独立的神经网络处理器物理单元必要性并不大。”

伟大的改革开放的总设计设计师邓小平先生曾经说过:“黑猫白猫,能抓住老鼠就是好猫”。无论是利用 AI SDK 充分调动 CPU、GPU、HVX甚至是 DSP 的计算能力综合调控分配达成优秀的 AI 计算效果和效率,还是利用 APU 或 NPU 独立计算,只要能让消费者体验到完整、优秀的智慧体验,就是好的解决方案。于是乎,借着vivo这次发布会,将骁龙SoC的AI能力推向一个高峰的机会,高通也就顺水推舟的耍了一把“花枪”,让自家合作的小伙伴们拥有了可以和竞争对手正面对抗的能力——最起码吆喝起来不吃亏了。

AI的“真相”

在这里,我就不得不把已经随处可见的智能手机AI这个东西再大致的解析一下,因为了解了智能手机AI的架构,就可以让我们更加清楚的认识到AI是如何在智能手机上实现的。

一个比较简单的AI应用,大约构成是这样的

在这个构成中,我们见得最多的TensorFlow,Caffe等知名的AI名词,就处于上图绿色部分之中,其运行所需要的运算能力,就需要通过Android NN这样的API向下对NPU、或是类似于NPU的各个处理器进行调用。

而高通骁龙660 AIE中所指的人工智能引擎(AI Engine)的构成就是硬件(Hexagon向量处理器、Adreno GPU、Kryo CPU)+ 软件工具(SNP SDK、Android NN、Hexagon NN)这些构成,或者说,这些软件与硬件加在一起,就可以构成一个足以对抗甚至超越竞争对手独立NPU运算能力的人工智能架构。那么,高通为什么这样坚持自己这样的AIE架构呢?

其实对比来看就可以知道,苹果、海思与三星这三家智能手机大厂,其推出的带有独立NPU的处理器,几乎都是自家的智能手机产品在使用。而与过往的CPU、GPU、ISP这些处理单元最大的不同,NPU处理器的功效发挥,除了自身本来的硬件运算能力之外,跑在其上的算法重要性更是不可小觑。而这些大厂,都拥有庞大的软件团队针对性的强化自家NPU的运算效率,比如单华为一家的软件团队,人数就多达数万人,而这样恐怖的家底,与高通有着深度合作的各家小伙伴们几乎都不具备,那他们怎么办呢?

在国内,有大量的知名厂商,基于高通骁龙平台的AI引擎,在提供着各式各样的解决方案,比如语音方案有百度的Duer OS、阿里的AliGenie、面部识别方案有Face++、商汤科技、拍照算法有ArcSoft虹软、腾讯的安全等等,在这些厂商提供的解决方案基础上,各家智能手机厂商就可以通过自身的研发与努力,将AI的功能通过各种不同的方式呈现出来,从而形成自家独特的AI功能并最终形成最终的产品竞争力。

在vivo X21发布会上展示的各种相关的AI功能,都是通过成熟的高通骁龙AI引擎,以及上述方案提供商的解决方案,再加上vivo自家研发部门的小伙伴一起努力实现的。而从产品本身的AI特性上来年,vivo研发部分的努力也是相当重要的,也许正因为如此,高通方才愿意将骁龙660 AIE这样的名号交给vivo来使用。同时,正如vivo负责技术研发的副总裁施玉坚所说:“高通骁龙是成熟的平台,骁龙AI SDK也是可以直接通过JAVA和Caffe/Caffe2以及TensorFlow这些人工智能架构直接编写应用,比物理NPU的封闭系统要开放很多。所以未来相信有更多人工智能应用出现在高通平台上,让更多人体验人工智能科技是vivo的目标,选择更成熟开放的高通人工智能引擎660 AIE也是顺理成章。”

看到这里,各位朋友应该明白所谓AI的真相了:独立的NPU固然重要,但如何让它与算法、解决方案一起,最终为用户提供体验良好的AI功能才是最终的目标,在这一点上,不管是何种手段,只要能提供足够的运算能力,就是好的AI解决方案。不过,个人认为,高通采用多核异构计算的方式解决AI引擎的运算能力很有可能是暂时的,因为在最新的骁龙845平台中,高通加入了一个全新的DSP微架构,实现 8位性能翻倍,但功耗却比前一代产品节省了两倍,按这样的迭代升级节奏,骁龙平台要出现独立的AI计算单元,并不是没有可能性。

写在最后

好了,进入例行的BB时间。通过这篇科普文,各位朋友应该能对当下很多关于智能手机AI的问题有了一个比较系统清晰的了解,同时也应该能明白骁龙660 AIE这枚SoC到底是何方神圣。可能有朋友要说“这样的做法不是在偷换概念么?”但我个人认为,这样的概念转换,不仅仅是一个营销的推广话术而已,而是高通与vivo,希望能携手一起,向消费者提供更明确清晰的信息。这绝非是什么错误,而是必须要进行的说明。消费者可以借此了解到自己的手机,从智能手机,慢慢向“智慧”手机进化的根本推力是什么,对吧?

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fanklin (2018-9-29 14:40:40)
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