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世界最小摄影飞机亮相:翼展10厘米重3克

发布: 2009-8-23 16:48 |  作者: admin 

代夫尔微型摄影飞机重3克,翼展4英寸长

其视频摄像装置

据美国生活科学网报道,目前,荷兰科学家最新研制世界上最小的摄影飞机――翼展长4英寸(约10厘米),重量仅3克,它看上去更像是一只蜻蜓,尤其是拍打翅膀飞行时的样子。它被称为代夫尔微型摄影飞机,可以携载微型摄像仪,将实时观测到的视频景像传输出去,这款微型摄影飞机的面世意味着微型航空侦察机时代的快速发展。

7月23日,这款世界上最小的摄影飞机在荷兰代夫特市体育中心登场亮相,来自代夫特科技大学的4人科研小组负责其设计,在体育中心这款微型摄影飞机进行了首次公众飞行示范。研究小组成员巴特?雷米斯称,他和同事克里斯托弗?德瓦格特、吉多?德克鲁恩、里克?鲁吉西克对代夫尔微型摄影飞机第一次试飞时间是今年5月5日。这是我们研究小组第三代代夫尔微型飞行器,第一代代夫尔微型飞行器是于2005年完成首次试飞,其体型要大一些;第二代是于2006年完成首次试飞。

研究小组最初目标是进一步研发具有扑翼飞机空气动力学结构的代夫尔微型系列飞行器,这种扑翼飞机拍打翅膀就像一只鸟或昆虫。雷米斯说,“由于体型太小,计算机并不能模拟这种微型飞行器机翼周围气流状况,因此我们不能进行更多的计算评估,仅能进行测量实践完成。”

他们在研究过程中测量了第二代代夫尔微型飞机(翼展11英寸、重16克)机翼周围烟雾粒子的运动情况,机翼中内置的压力传感器测定机翼在多快的拍打频率下实现飞机起飞。

摄影飞机飞行过程

  目标:体积小型化和自治化飞行

雷米斯称,研究人员发现第二代代夫尔微型飞行器理想的机翼拍打频率为每秒14次,对于第三代飞行器,其机翼区域占据更大结构比率,其最佳有效飞行拍打频率为每秒30次。为了帮助研究小组实现扑翼飞机空气动力学,这款最新微型飞行器将有助于实现其他目标,其中最重要的目标是后继系列飞行器实现更大程度的微型化,其次是实现自治化飞行。

到目前为止,代夫尔微型摄影飞机不能完成飞行自治化,它仍依靠操作人员通过操纵杆进行远程无线遥控,控制飞行器飞行达到摄影目的。然而,第二代代夫尔微型飞行器却能够自治化飞行。经过研制改良图像识别软件之后,第二代可以分析其周围环境,识别其相关的位置,两周前,该研究小组在德国EMAV大赛上示范了第二代代夫尔微型飞行器自治化户外飞行测试。雷米斯说,“在下一步研究中我们将复制第二代自治化飞行特点,应用于最新款代夫尔微型飞行器上。”

它像一只蜻蜓一样落在人的肩膀上

代夫尔微型摄影飞机规格介绍

这种机翼薄膜采用轻质木材和碳材料制成,代夫尔微型摄影飞机由重量仅1克的微型锂聚合电池提供能源,该电池每小时产生30毫安培电流,足以保持这种昆虫大小的飞行器飞行3分钟以上。

其摄像仪仅重0.4克,驱动机翼拍打的直流电刷式电动机仅重0.45克,控制方向和升降舵的磁性制动装置重0.5克,其操作电子装置重0.2克,还有重0.5克的结构框架使其总重量达到3.07克。虽然最新款的摄影飞机不能像第二代向后飞行,它却达到了5米/秒的飞行速度。理论上讲,该飞行器可飞行900米远的距离,但是雷米斯指出,目前其有效飞行距离仅限制在50米之内,如果飞行距离太远,对于简单天线装置其传输视频资料信号变得十分微弱。

研究小组在地面控制站增添更好的天线可实现飞行范围的扩大,同时,新电池技术可使飞行器更具有效性,增强其飞行时间超过3分钟以上。更大的持久性可使微型摄影飞机进入狭窄空间或危险地形进行勘测,比如部分倒塌的建筑或辐射区域。

尽管这款飞行器已是当前世界上最小的摄影飞机,但是研究人员的目标却是未来研制体型更小、更高效的新系列代尔夫飞行器。下一个目标是第四代代尔夫纳米飞行器,其重量仅1克,翼展2英寸,目前其4年研制计划已完成了1年相关设计工作。预计纳米飞行器机翼拍打频率将更快。

微型摄影飞机与硬币的对比图

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